Table7_Immunological Significance of Prognostic DNA Methylation Sites in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.xlsx (9.55 kB)
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Table7_Immunological Significance of Prognostic DNA Methylation Sites in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.xlsx

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posted on 26.05.2021, 05:11 by Qianhui Xu, Yuanbo Hu, Shaohuai Chen, Yulun Zhu, Siwei Li, Feng Shen, Yifan Guo, Tao Sun, Xiaoyu Chen, Jinpeng Jiang, Wen Huang

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a tumor with high morbidity and high mortality worldwide. DNA methylation, one of the most common epigenetic changes, might serve a vital regulatory role in cancer.

Methods: To identify categories based on DNA methylation data, consensus clustering was employed. The risk signature was yielded by systematic bioinformatics analyses based on the remarkably methylated CpG sites of cluster 1. Kaplan–Meier analysis, variable regression analysis, and ROC curve analysis were further conducted to validate the prognosis predictive ability of risk signature. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was performed for functional annotation. To uncover the context of tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) of HCC, we employed the ssGSEA algorithm and CIBERSORT method and performed TIMER database exploration and single-cell RNA sequencing analysis. Additionally, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was employed to determine the LRRC41 expression and preliminarily explore the latent role of LRRC41 in prognostic prediction. Finally, mutation data were analyzed by employing the “maftools” package to delineate the tumor mutation burden (TMB).

Results: HCC samples were assigned into seven subtypes with different overall survival and methylation levels based on 5′-cytosine-phosphate-guanine-3′ (CpG) sites. The risk prognostic signature including two candidate genes (LRRC41 and KIAA1429) exhibited robust prognostic predictive accuracy, which was validated in the external testing cohort. Then, the risk score was significantly correlated with the TIME and immune checkpoint blockade (ICB)–related genes. Besides, a prognostic nomogram based on the risk score and clinical stage presented powerful prognostic ability. Additionally, LRRC41 with prognostic value was corroborated to be closely associated with TIME characterization in both expression and methylation levels. Subsequently, the correlation regulatory network uncovered the potential targets of LRRC41 and KIAA1429. Finally, the methylation level of KIAA1429 was correlated with gene mutation status.

Conclusion: In summary, this is the first to identify HCC samples into distinct clusters according to DNA methylation and yield the CpG-based prognostic signature and quantitative nomogram to precisely predict prognosis. And the pivotal player of DNA methylation of genes in the TIME and TMB status was explored, contributing to clinical decision-making and personalized prognosis monitoring of HCC.