Table5_RNA Secondary Structurome Revealed Distinct Thermoregulation in Plasmodium falciparum.XLSX (2.64 MB)

Table5_RNA Secondary Structurome Revealed Distinct Thermoregulation in Plasmodium falciparum.XLSX

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posted on 2022-01-04, 04:16 authored by Yanwei Qi, Yuhong Zhang, Quankai Mu, Guixing Zheng, Mengxin Zhang, Bingxia Chen, Jun Huang, Changling Ma, Xinhua Wang

The development of Plasmodium parasites, a causative agent of malaria, requests two hosts and the completion of 11 different parasite stages during development. Therefore, an efficient and fast response of parasites to various complex environmental changes, such as ambient temperature, pH, ions, and nutrients, is essential for parasite development and survival. Among many of these environmental changes, temperature is a decisive factor for parasite development and pathogenesis, including the thermoregulation of rRNA expression, gametogenesis, and parasite sequestration in cerebral malaria. However, the exact mechanism of how Plasmodium parasites rapidly respond and adapt to temperature change remains elusive. As a fundamental and pervasive regulator of gene expression, RNA structure can be a specific mechanism for fine tuning various biological processes. For example, dynamic and temperature-dependent changes in RNA secondary structures can control the expression of different gene programs, as shown by RNA thermometers. In this study, we applied the in vitro and in vivo transcriptomic-wide secondary structurome approach icSHAPE to measure parasite RNA structure changes with temperature alteration at single-nucleotide resolution for ring and trophozoite stage parasites. Among 3,000 probed structures at different temperatures, our data showed structural changes in the global transcriptome, such as S-type rRNA, HRPII gene, and the erythrocyte membrane protein family. When the temperature drops from 37°C to 26°C, most of the genes in the trophozoite stage cause significantly more changes to the RNA structure than the genes in the ring stage. A multi-omics analysis of transcriptome data from RNA-seq and RNA structure data from icSHAPE reveals that the specific RNA secondary structure plays a significant role in the regulation of transcript expression for parasites in response to temperature changes. In addition, we identified several RNA thermometers (RNATs) that responded quickly to temperature changes. The possible thermo-responsive RNAs in Plasmodium falciparum were further mapped. To this end, we identified dynamic and temperature-dependent RNA structural changes in the P. falciparum transcriptome and performed a comprehensive characterization of RNA secondary structures over the course of temperature stress in blood stage development. These findings not only contribute to a better understanding of the function of the RNA secondary structure but may also provide novel targets for efficient vaccines or drugs.