Table5_Identification of Clinical and Tumor Microenvironment Characteristics of Hypoxia-Related Risk Signature in Lung Adenocarcinoma.XLSX
Background: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death globally. Hypoxia can suppress the activation of the tumor microenvironment (TME), which contributes to distant metastasis. However, the role of hypoxia-mediated TME in predicting the diagnosis and prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) patients remains unclear.
Methods: Both RNA and clinical data from the LUAD cohort were downloaded from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) databases. Both univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to further screen prognosis-related hypoxia gene clusters. Time-dependent receiver operation characteristic (ROC) curves were established to evaluate the predictive sensitivity and specificity of the hypoxia-related risk signature. The characterization of gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and TME immune cell infiltration were further explored to identify hypoxia-related immune infiltration.
Results: Eight hypoxia-related genes (LDHA, DCN, PGK1, PFKP, FBP1, LOX, ENO3, and CXCR4) were identified and established to construct a hypoxia-related risk signature. The high-risk group showed a poor overall survival compared to that of the low-risk group in the TCGA and GSE68465 cohorts (p < 0.0001). The AUCs for 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival were 0.736 vs. 0.741, 0.656 vs. 0.737, and 0.628 vs. 0.649, respectively. The high-risk group was associated with immunosuppression in the TME.
Conclusion: The hypoxia-related risk signature may represent an independent biomarker that can differentiate the characteristics of TME immune cell infiltration and predict the prognosis of LUAD.