Table4_Dysregulated BMP2 in the Placenta May Contribute to Early-Onset Preeclampsia by Regulating Human Trophoblast Expression of Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Molecules.docx
Many pregnancy disorders, including early-onset preeclampsia (EOPE), are associated with defects in placental trophoblast cell invasion and differentiation during early placental development. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) belongs to the TGF-β superfamily and controls various physiological and developmental processes. However, the expression of BMP2 in the placenta and underlying molecular mechanisms of how BMP2 regulates trophoblast function remain unclear. In this study, we analyzed several publicly available microarray and RNA-seq datasets and revealed differences in expression of TGF-β superfamily members between gestational age-matched non-preeclamptic control and EOPE placentas. Importantly, BMP2 levels were significantly reduced in EOPE placentas compared with controls, and RNAscope in situ hybridization further demonstrated BMP2 expression was disrupted in EOPE placental villi. To explore the molecular mechanisms of BMP2-regulated early trophoblast differentiation, we examined BMP2 expression in first-trimester human placenta and found it to be localized to all subtypes of trophoblasts and the decidua. RNA-seq analysis on control and BMP2-treated primary human trophoblast cells identified 431 differentially expressed genes, including several canonical TGF-β/BMP signaling targets (BAMBI, ID1, INHBA, IGFBP3). Gene ontology annotations revealed that differentially expressed genes were involved in cell adhesion and extracellular matrix organization. Furthermore, we identified adhesion molecule with IgG-like domain 2 (AMIGO2) as a novel target for BMP2 that contributed to BMP2-induced trophoblast invasion and endothelial-like tube formation. Overall, our findings provide insight into the molecular processes controlled by BMP2 during early placental development that may contribute to the pathogenesis of EOPE.