Table4_Cyclic Attractors Are Critical for Macrophage Differentiation, Heterogeneity, and Plasticity.CSV (0.52 kB)
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Table4_Cyclic Attractors Are Critical for Macrophage Differentiation, Heterogeneity, and Plasticity.CSV

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posted on 11.04.2022, 04:21 by Manuel Azaid Ordaz-Arias, Laura Díaz-Alvarez, Joaquín Zúñiga, Mariana Esther Martinez-Sánchez, Yalbi Itzel Balderas-Martínez

Adaptability, heterogeneity, and plasticity are the hallmarks of macrophages. How these complex properties emerge from the molecular interactions is an open question. Thus, in this study we propose an actualized regulatory network of cytokines, signaling pathways, and transcription factors to survey the differentiation, heterogeneity, and plasticity of macrophages. The network recovers attractors, which in regulatory networks correspond to cell types, that correspond to M0, M1, M2a, M2b, M2c, M2d, M2-like, and IL-6 producing cells, including multiple cyclic attractors that are stable to perturbations. These cyclic attractors reproduce experimental observations and show that oscillations result from the structure of the network. We also study the effect of the environment in the differentiation and plasticity of macrophages, showing that the observed heterogeneity in macrophage populations is a result of the regulatory network and its interaction with the micro-environment. The macrophage regulatory network gives a mechanistic explanation to the heterogeneity and plasticity of macrophages seen in vivo and in vitro, and offers insights into the mechanism that allows the immune system to react to a complex dynamic environment.

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