Table3_Comparison of Gait Speed Reserve, Usual Gait Speed, and Maximum Gait Speed of Adults Aged 50+ in Ireland Using Explainable Machine Learning.DOCX (662.48 kB)
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Table3_Comparison of Gait Speed Reserve, Usual Gait Speed, and Maximum Gait Speed of Adults Aged 50+ in Ireland Using Explainable Machine Learning.DOCX

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posted on 19.11.2021, 16:39 authored by James R. C Davis, Silvin P. Knight, Orna A. Donoghue, Belinda Hernández, Rossella Rizzo, Rose Anne Kenny, Roman Romero-Ortuno

Gait speed is a measure of general fitness. Changing from usual (UGS) to maximum (MGS) gait speed requires coordinated action of many body systems. Gait speed reserve (GSR) is defined as MGS–UGS. From a shortlist of 88 features across five categories including sociodemographic, cognitive, and physiological, we aimed to find and compare the sets of predictors that best describe UGS, MGS, and GSR. For this, we leveraged data from 3,925 adults aged 50+ from Wave 3 of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA). Features were selected by a histogram gradient boosting regression-based stepwise feature selection pipeline. Each model’s feature importance and input–output relationships were explored using TreeExplainer from the Shapely Additive Explanations explainable machine learning package. The mean Radj2 (SD) from fivefold cross-validation on training data and the Radj2 score on test data were 0.38 (0.04) and 0.41 for UGS, 0.45 (0.04) and 0.46 for MGS, and 0.19 (0.02) and 0.21 for GSR. Each model selected features across all categories. Features common to all models were age, grip strength, chair stands time, mean motor reaction time, and height. Exclusive to UGS and MGS were educational attainment, fear of falling, Montreal cognitive assessment errors, and orthostatic intolerance. Exclusive to MGS and GSR were body mass index (BMI), and number of medications. No features were selected exclusively for UGS and GSR. Features unique to UGS were resting-state pulse interval, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD) depression, sit-to-stand difference in diastolic blood pressure, and left visual acuity. Unique to MGS were standard deviation in sustained attention to response task times, resting-state heart rate, smoking status, total heartbeat power during paced breathing, and visual acuity. Unique to GSR were accuracy proportion in a sound-induced flash illusion test, Mini-mental State Examination errors, and number of cardiovascular conditions. No interactions were present in the GSR model. The four features that overall gave the most impactful interactions in the UGS and MGS models were age, chair stands time, grip strength, and BMI. These findings may help provide new insights into the multisystem predictors of gait speed and gait speed reserve in older adults and support a network physiology approach to their study.

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