Table2_Status of Earthquake Early Warning in Switzerland.docx (219.3 kB)
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Table2_Status of Earthquake Early Warning in Switzerland.docx

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posted on 09.09.2021, 05:57 by Frédérick Massin, John Clinton, Maren Böse

The Swiss Seismological Service (SED) at ETH has been developing methods and open-source software for Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) for more than a decade and has been using SeisComP for earthquake monitoring since 2012. The SED has built a comprehensive set of SeisComP modules that can provide EEW solutions in a quick and transparent manner by any seismic service operating SeisComP. To date, implementations of the Virtual Seismologist (VS) and Finite-Fault Rupture Detector (FinDer) EEW algorithms are available. VS provides rapid EEW magnitudes building on existing SeisComP detection and location modules for point-source origins. FinDer matches growing patterns of observed high-frequency seismic acceleration amplitudes with modeled templates to identify rupture extent, and hence can infer on-going finite-fault rupture in real-time. Together these methods can provide EEW for all event dimensions from moderate to great, if a high quality, EEW-ready, seismic network is available. In this paper, we benchmark the performance of this SeisComP-based EEW system using recent seismicity in Switzerland. Both algorithms are observed to be similarly fast and can often produce first EEW alerts within 4–6 s of origin time. In real time performance, the median delay for the first VS alert is 8.7 s after origin time (56 earthquakes since 2014, from M2.7 to M4.6), and 7 s for FinDer (10 earthquakes since 2017, from M2.7 to M4.3). The median value for the travel time of the P waves from event origin to the fourth station accounts for 3.5 s of delay; with an additional 1.4 s for real-time data sample delays. We demonstrate that operating two independent algorithms provides redundancy and tolerance to failures of a single algorithm. This is documented with the case of a moderate M3.9 event that occured seconds after a quarry blast, where picks from both events produced a 4 s delay in the pick-based VS, while FinDer performed as expected. Operating on the Swiss Seismic Network, that is being continuously optimised for EEW, the SED-ETHZ SeisComP EEW system is achieving performance that is comparable to operational EEW systems around the world.