Table2_Efficacy of Utilization of All-Plant-Based and Commercial Low-Fishmeal Feeds in Two Divergently Selected Strains of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): Focus on Growth Performance, Whole-Body Proximate Composition, and Intestinal Microbiome.docx
The present study aimed to investigate the growth performance, whole-body proximate composition, and intestinal microbiome of rainbow trout strains when selected and non-selected for weight gain on all-plant protein diets. A 2x2 factorial design was applied, where a selected (United States) and a non-selected (ITA) rainbow trout strain were fed using either an all-plant protein (PP) or a commercial low-FM diet (C). Diets were fed to five replicates of 20 (PP) or 25 (C) fish for 105 days. At the end of the trial, growth parameters were assessed, and whole fish (15 pools of three fish/diet) and gut samples (six fish/diet) were collected for whole-body proximate composition and gut microbiome analyses, respectively. Independent of the administered diet, the United States strain showed higher survival, final body weight, weight gain, and specific growth rate when compared to the ITA fish (p < 0.001). Furthermore, decreased whole-body ether extract content was identified in the PP-fed United States rainbow trout when compared to the ITA strain fed the same diet (p < 0.001). Gut microbiome analysis revealed the Cetobacterium probiotic-like genus as clearly associated with the United States rainbow trout, along with the up-regulation of the pathway involved in starch and sucrose metabolism. In summary, the overall improvement in growth performance and, to a lesser extent, whole-body proximate composition observed in the selected rainbow trout strain was accompanied by specific, positive modulation of the intestinal microbiome.