Table2_An Interpretable Double-Scale Attention Model for Enzyme Protein Class Prediction Based on Transformer Encoders and Multi-Scale Convolutions.XLSX (31.32 kB)
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Table2_An Interpretable Double-Scale Attention Model for Enzyme Protein Class Prediction Based on Transformer Encoders and Multi-Scale Convolutions.XLSX

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posted on 01.04.2022, 15:49 authored by Ken Lin, Xiongwen Quan, Chen Jin, Zhuangwei Shi, Jinglong Yang

Background Classification and annotation of enzyme proteins are fundamental for enzyme research on biological metabolism. Enzyme Commission (EC) numbers provide a standard for hierarchical enzyme class prediction, on which several computational methods have been proposed. However, most of these methods are dependent on prior distribution information and none explicitly quantifies amino-acid-level relations and possible contribution of sub-sequences.

Methods In this study, we propose a double-scale attention enzyme class prediction model named DAttProt with high reusability and interpretability. DAttProt encodes sequence by self-supervised Transformer encoders in pre-training and gathers local features by multi-scale convolutions in fine-tuning. Specially, a probabilistic double-scale attention weight matrix is designed to aggregate multi-scale features and positional prediction scores. Finally, a full connection linear classifier conducts a final inference through the aggregated features and prediction scores.

Results On DEEPre and ECPred datasets, DAttProt performs as competitive with the compared methods on level 0 and outperforms them on deeper task levels, reaching 0.788 accuracy on level 2 of DEEPre and 0.967 macro-F1 on level 1 of ECPred. Moreover, through case study, we demonstrate that the double-scale attention matrix learns to discover and focus on the positions and scales of bio-functional sub-sequences in the protein.

Conclusion Our DAttProt provides an effective and interpretable method for enzyme class prediction. It can predict enzyme protein classes accurately and furthermore discover enzymatic functional sub-sequences such as protein motifs from both positional and spatial scales.

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