Table1_Platycodon grandiflorum Triggers Antitumor Immunity by Restricting PD-1 Expression of CD8+ T Cells in Local Tumor Microenvironment.DOCX (762.91 kB)
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Table1_Platycodon grandiflorum Triggers Antitumor Immunity by Restricting PD-1 Expression of CD8+ T Cells in Local Tumor Microenvironment.DOCX

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posted on 14.04.2022, 04:06 by Ruijie Yang, Tianli Pei, Ruifei Huang, Yue Xiao, Jiangna Yan, Jinglin Zhu, Chunli Zheng, Wei Xiao, Chao Huang

In the tumor microenvironment (TME), the activation of programmed death-1 (PD-1)–programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) pathway is one of the main signals of immune escape and tumor deterioration. Clinically, the application of monoclonal antibodies slows down the progression of various malignancies and prolongs the survival of patients effectively. However, these treatments result in serious immune-related adverse events (irAEs) owning to systemic immune activation. Therefore, to achieve long-term therapeutic effects and low side effects, it is necessary to find drugs inhibiting the local PD-1/PD-L1 signaling pathway of the TME. Here, we discovered that Platycodon grandiflorum (PG), a medicine and food homology herb, reduced the expression of PD-1 on the surface of CD8+ T cells to exert antitumor effects in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Firstly, by combining systems pharmacology strategies and clinical data analysis, we found that PG has the potential to immunomodulate T cells and suppress tumors. Secondly, in vivo and in vitro experiments have confirmed the antitumor effect of the combination of Platycodin D and Platycodin D3, which is preferred and representative of the compounds. Mechanistically, PG increased the infiltration and killing activity of CD8+ T cells, which was related to the decrease of PD-1+ CD8+ T cells. Furthermore, we confirmed that PG regulated the expression of PD-1 on the surface of CD8+ T cells via reducing the secretion of VEGF-A regulated by the level of P-STAT3 in tumor cells. Additionally, PG also positively impacted the biological processes downstream of STAT3. Overall, we demonstrated that PG-mediated downregulation of PD-1 on the surface of CD8+ T cells represents a promising strategy to locally enhance T-cell responses and improve antitumor immunity.

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