Table1_Can early-onset acquired demyelinating syndrome (ADS) hide pediatric Behcet's disease? A case report.pdf
Behcet's disease (BD) is a rare vasculitis characterized by multisystemic inflammation. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement is rare and heterogeneous, particularly in the pediatric population. A diagnosis of neuro-Behcet could be highly challenging, especially if neurological manifestations precede other systemic features; however, its timely definition is crucial to prevent long-term sequelae. In this study, we describe the case of a girl who, at 13 months of age, presented with a first episode of encephalopathy compatible with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, followed, after 6 months, by a neurological relapse characterized by ophthalmoparesis and gait ataxia, in association with new inflammatory lesions in the brain and spinal cord, suggesting a neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. The neurological manifestations were successfully treated with high-dose steroids and intravenous immunoglobulins. In the following months, the patient developed a multisystemic involvement suggestive of Behcet's disease, characterized by polyarthritis and uveitis, associated with HLA-B51 positivity. The challenge presented by this unique case required a multidisciplinary approach involving pediatric neurologists, neuro-radiologists, and pediatric rheumatologists, with all of these specialists creating awareness about early-onset acquired demyelinating syndromes (ADSs). Given the rarity of this presentation, we performed a review of the literature focusing on neurological manifestations in BD and differential diagnosis of patients with early-onset ADS.