Table10_A Prognostic Risk Score Based on Hypoxia-, Immunity-, and Epithelialto-Mesenchymal Transition-Related Genes for the Prognosis and Immunotherapy Response of Lung Adenocarcinoma.DOCX
Background: Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), the most common subtype of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), is associated with poor prognosis. However, current stage-based clinical methods are insufficient for survival prediction and decision-making. This study aimed to establish a novel model for evaluating the risk of LUAD based on hypoxia, immunity, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) gene signatures.
Methods: In this study, we used data from TCGA-LUAD for the training cohort and GSE68465 and GSE72094 for the validation cohorts. Immunotherapy datasets GSE135222, GSE126044, and IMvigor210 were obtained from a previous study. Using bioinformatic and machine algorithms, we established a risk model based on hypoxia, immune, and EMT gene signatures, which was then used to divide patients into the high and low risk groups. We analyzed differences in enriched pathways between the two groups, following which we investigated whether the risk score was correlated with stemness scores, genes related to m6A, m5C, m1A and m7G modification, the immune microenvironment, immunotherapy response, and multiple anti-cancer drug sensitivity.
Results: Overall survival differed significantly between the high-risk and low-risk groups (HR = 4.26). The AUCs for predicting 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival were 0.763, 0.766, and 0.728, respectively. In the GSE68465 dataset, the HR was 2.03, while the AUCs for predicting 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival were 0.69, 0.651, and 0.618, respectively. The corresponding values in the GSE72094 dataset were an HR of 2.36 and AUCs of 0.653, 0.662, and 0.749, respectively. The risk score model could independently predict OS in patients with LUAD, and highly correlated with stemness scores and numerous m6A, m5C, m1A and m7G modification-related genes. Furthermore, the risk model was significantly correlated with multiple immune microenvironment characteristics. In the GSE135222 dataset, the HR was 4.26 and the AUC was 0.702. Evaluation of the GSE126044 and IMvigor210 cohorts indicated that PD-1/PD-LI inhibitor treatment may be indicated in patients with low risk scores, while anti-cancer therapy with various drugs may be indicated in patients with high risk scores.
Conclusion: Our novel risk model developed based on hypoxia, immune, and EMT gene signatures can aid in predicting clinical prognosis and guiding treatment in patients with LUAD.