Data_Sheet_6_Evolution of Matrix Gla and Bone Gla Protein Genes in Jawed Vertebrates.DOCX (12.75 kB)
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Data_Sheet_6_Evolution of Matrix Gla and Bone Gla Protein Genes in Jawed Vertebrates.DOCX

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posted on 10.03.2021, 04:38 by Nicolas Leurs, Camille Martinand-Mari, Stéphanie Ventéo, Tatjana Haitina, Mélanie Debiais-Thibaud

Matrix Gla protein (Mgp) and bone Gla protein (Bgp) are vitamin-K dependent proteins that bind calcium in their γ-carboxylated versions in mammals. They are recognized as positive (Bgp) or negative (Mgp and Bgp) regulators of biomineralization in a number of tissues, including skeletal tissues of bony vertebrates. The Mgp/Bgp gene family is poorly known in cartilaginous fishes, which precludes the understanding of the evolution of the biomineralization toolkit at the emergence of jawed vertebrates. Here we took advantage of recently released genomic and transcriptomic data in cartilaginous fishes and described the genomic loci and gene expression patterns of the Mgp/Bgp gene family. We identified three genes, Mgp1, Mgp2, and Bgp, in cartilaginous fishes instead of the single previously reported Mgp gene. We describe their genomic loci, resulting in a dynamic evolutionary scenario for this gene family including several events of local (tandem) duplications, but also of translocation events, along jawed vertebrate evolution. We describe the expression patterns of Mgp1, Mgp2, and Bgp in embryonic stages covering organogenesis in the small-spotted catshark Scyliorhinus canicula and present a comparative analysis with Mgp/Bgp family members previously described in bony vertebrates, highlighting ancestral features such as early embryonic, soft tissues, and neuronal expressions, but also derived features of cartilaginous fishes such as expression in fin supporting fibers. Our results support an ancestral function of Mgp in skeletal mineralization and a later derived function of Bgp in skeletal development that may be related to the divergence of bony vertebrates.