Data_Sheet_5_Comorbidity Networks in Cardiovascular Diseases.PDF
Background: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of mortality worldwide. One reason behind this lethality lies in the fact that often cardiovascular illnesses develop into systemic failure due to the multiple connections to organismal metabolism. This in turn is associated with co-morbidities and multimorbidity. The prevalence of coexisting diseases and the relationship between the molecular origins adds to the complexity of the management of cardiovascular diseases and thus requires a profound knowledge of the genetic interaction of diseases.
Objective: In order to develop a deeper understanding of this phenomenon, we examined the patterns of comorbidity as well as their genetic interaction of the diseases (or the lack of evidence of it) in a large set of cases diagnosed with cardiovascular conditions at the national reference hospital for cardiovascular diseases in Mexico.
Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of the National Institute of Cardiology. Socioeconomic information, principal diagnosis that led to the hospitalization and other conditions identified by an ICD-10 code were obtained for 34,099 discharged cases. With this information a cardiovascular comorbidity networks were built both for the full database and for ten 10-years age brackets. The associated cardiovascular comorbidities modules were found. Data mining was performed in the comprehensive ClinVar database with the disease names (as extracted from ICD-10 codes) to establish (when possible) connections between the genetic associations of the genetic interaction of diseases. The rationale is that some comorbidities may have a stronger genetic origin, whereas for others, the environment and other factors may be stronger.
Results: We found that comorbidity networks are highly centralized in prevalent diseases, such as cardiac arrhythmias, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, hypertension, and ischemic diseases. Said comorbidity networks are actually modular on their connectivity. Modules recapitulate physiopathological commonalities, e.g., ischemic diseases clustering together. This is also the case of chronic systemic diseases, of congenital malformations and others. The genetic and environmental commonalities behind some of the relations in these modules were also found by resorting to clinical genetics databases and functional pathway enrichment studies.
Conclusions: This methodology, hence may allow the clinician to look up for non-evident comorbidities whose knowledge will lead to improve therapeutically designs. By continued and consistent analysis of these types of patterns, we envisaged that it may be possible to acquire, strong clinical and basic insights that may further our advance toward a better understanding of cardiovascular diseases as a whole. Hopefully these may in turn lead to further development of better, integrated therapeutic strategies.
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