Data_Sheet_4_Model-Based Simulation of Maintenance Therapy of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.PDF
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the most common malignancy in childhood. Successful treatment requires initial high-intensity chemotherapy, followed by low-intensity oral maintenance therapy with oral 6-mercaptopurine (6MP) and methotrexate (MTX) until 2–3 years after disease onset. However, intra- and inter-individual variability in the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of 6MP and MTX make it challenging to balance the desired antileukemic effects with undesired excessive myelosuppression during maintenance therapy. A model to simulate the dynamics of different cell types, especially neutrophils, would be a valuable contribution to improving treatment protocols (6MP and MTX dosing regimens) and a further step to understanding the heterogeneity in treatment efficacy and toxicity. We applied and modified a recently developed semi-mechanistic PK/PD model to neutrophils and analyzed their behavior using a non-linear mixed-effects modeling approach and clinical data obtained from 116 patients. The PK model of 6MP influenced the accuracy of absolute neutrophil count (ANC) predictions, whereas the PD effect of MTX did not. Predictions based on ANC were more accurate than those based on white blood cell counts. Using the new cross-validated mathematical model, simulations of different treatment protocols showed a linear dose-effect relationship and reduced ANC variability for constant dosages. Advanced modeling allows the identification of optimized control criteria and the weighting of specific influencing factors for protocol design and individually adapted therapy to exploit the optimal effect of maintenance therapy on survival.