Data_Sheet_3_Diagnostic Value of Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing for the Detection of Pathogens in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid in Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Patients.docx
Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP).
Methods: BALF samples of 72 patients with VAP were collected from August 2018 to May 2020. The diagnostic performance of conventional testing (CT) and mNGS methods were compared based on bacterial and fungal examinations. The diagnostic value of mNGS for viral and mixed infections was also analyzed.
Results: The percentage of mNGS positive samples was significantly higher than that estimated by the CT method [odds ratio (OR), 4.33; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.78–10.53; p < 0.001]. The sensitivity and specificity of mNGS for bacterial detection were 97.1% (95% CI, 93.2–101.0%) and 42.1% (95 CI, 30.7–53.5%), respectively, whereas the positive predictive value (PPV) and the negative predictive value (NPV) were 60.0% (95% CI, 48.7–71.3%) and 94.1% (95% CI, 88.7–99.6%), respectively. A total of 38 samples were negative for bacterial detection as determined by the CT method, while 22 samples were positive as shown by the mNGS method. Conflicting results were obtained for three samples between the two methods of bacterial detection. However, no significant differences were noted between the mNGS and CT methods (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 0.68–2.97; p = 0.46) with regard to fungal infections. The sensitivity and specificity of mNGS were 71.9% (95% CI, 61.5–82.3%) and 77.5% (95% CI, 67.9–87.1%), respectively. mNGS exhibited a PPV of 71.9% (95% CI, 61.5–82.3%) and an NPV of 77.5% (95% CI, 67.9–87.1%). A total of 9 out of 40 samples were found positive for fungi according to mNGS, whereas the CT method failed to present positive results in these samples. The mNGS and CT methods produced conflicting results with regard to fungal detection of the two samples. A total of 30 patients were virus-positive using mNGS. Furthermore, 42 patients (58.3%) were identified as pulmonary mixed infection cases.
Conclusions: mNGS detection using BALF improved the sensitivity and specificity of bacterial identification in patients who developed VAP. In addition, mNGS exhibited apparent advantages in detecting viruses and identifying mixed infections.