Data_Sheet_2_Petroleum and Chlorinated Solvents in Meconium and the Risk of Hypospadias: A Pilot Study.pdf (726.33 kB)
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Data_Sheet_2_Petroleum and Chlorinated Solvents in Meconium and the Risk of Hypospadias: A Pilot Study.pdf

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posted on 02.06.2021, 04:11 by Florence Rouget, Adèle Bihannic, Sylvaine Cordier, Luc Multigner, Marie Meyer-Monath, Fabien Mercier, Patrick Pladys, Ronan Garlantezec

Background: Hypospadias is a male congenital malformation that occurs in ~2 of 1,000 births. The association between hypospadias and fetal exposure to environmental chemicals has been studied, but the results are inconsistent. Although several petroleum and chlorinated solvents are suspected to have teratogenic effects, their role in the occurrence of hypospadias has been little studied and never using biomarkers of exposure. We aimed to evaluate the association between fetal exposure to petroleum and chlorinated solvents measured in meconium and the occurrence of hypospadias.

Methods: We conducted a pilot case-control study in the maternity of the University Hospital of Rennes (France). Eleven cases of hypospadias and 46 controls were recruited between October 2012 and January 2014. Data from hospital records and maternal self-reported questionnaires, including socio-demographic characteristics and occupational and non-occupational exposure to chemicals, were collected. Meconium samples were collected using a standardized protocol. Levels of petroleum solvents (toluene, benzene, ethylbenzene, and p, m, and o xylene), certain metabolites (mandelic acid, hippuric acid, methylhippuric acid, S-phenylmercapturic acid, S-benzylmercapturic acid, and phenylglyoxylic acid), and two chlorinated solvents (trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene) were measured in meconium by gas and liquid chromatography, both coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Associations between the concentration of each chemical and the occurrence of hypospadias were analyzed using exact logistic regressions adjusted for maternal age, educational level, pre-pregnancy body mass index, and alcohol, and tobacco consumption during pregnancy. Results are presented with odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Results: Quantification rates for petroleum and chlorinated solvents or metabolites ranged from 2.2% (for methylhippuric acid) to 77.1% (for trichloroethylene) of the meconium samples. We found a significant association between the quantification of phenylglyoxylic acid (metabolite of styrene and ethylbenzene) in the meconium and a higher risk of hypospadias (OR = 14.2, 95% CI [2.5–138.7]). The risk of hypospadias was non-significantly elevated for most of the other solvents and metabolites.

Conclusion: This exploratory study, on a limited number of cases, suggests an association between petroleum solvents and hypospadias. Additional studies are needed to confirm these results and identify the determinants for the presence of these solvents in meconium.