Data_Sheet_2_Extracellular Vesicles Derived From Platelets, Red Blood Cells, and Monocyte-Like Cells Differ Regarding Their Ability to Induce Factor XII-Dependent Thrombin Generation.DOCX
As transmitters of biological information, extracellular vesicles (EVs) are crucial for the maintenance of physiological homeostasis, but also contribute to pathological conditions, such as thrombotic disorders. The ability of EVs to support thrombin generation has been linked to their exposure of phosphatidylserine, an anionic phospholipid that is normally restricted to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane but exposed on the outer leaflet during EV biogenesis. Here, we investigated whether EVs of different cellular origin and from different settings, namely platelets and red blood cells from blood bank units and a monocyte-like cell line (THP-1), differ regarding their potential to support factor XII-dependent thrombin generation. EVs were isolated from blood products or THP-1 cell culture supernatants using differential centrifugation and characterized by a combination of flow cytometry, nanoparticle tracking analysis, and Western blotting. Soluble factors co-enriched during the isolation of EVs were depleted from blood-cell derived EV fractions using size exclusion chromatography, while proteins bound to the surface of EVs were degraded by mild protease treatment. We found that platelet-derived and red blood cell-derived EVs supported factor XII-dependent thrombin generation to comparable extents, while monocytic EVs failed to support thrombin generation when added to EV-depleted human plasma. We excluded a major contribution of co-enriched soluble proteins or of proteins bound to the EV surface to the thrombogenicity of blood cell-derived EVs. Our data suggest that the enhanced potential of blood cell-derived EVs to support thrombin generation is rather due to enhanced exposure of phosphatidylserine on the surface of blood cell-derived EVs. Extending these investigations to EVs from other cell types, such as mesenchymal stromal cells, will be crucial for their future therapeutic applications.
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