Data_Sheet_1_Wrist Band Photoplethysmography Autocorrelation Analysis Enables Detection of Atrial Fibrillation Without Pulse Detection.PDF
Atrial fibrillation is often asymptomatic and intermittent making its detection challenging. A photoplethysmography (PPG) provides a promising option for atrial fibrillation detection. However, the shapes of pulse waves vary in atrial fibrillation decreasing pulse and atrial fibrillation detection accuracy. This study evaluated ten robust photoplethysmography features for detection of atrial fibrillation. The study was a national multi-center clinical study in Finland and the data were combined from two broader research projects (NCT03721601, URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03721601 and NCT03753139, URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03753139). A photoplethysmography signal was recorded with a wrist band. Five pulse interval variability, four amplitude features and a novel autocorrelation-based morphology feature were calculated and evaluated independently as predictors of atrial fibrillation. A multivariate predictor model including only the most significant features was established. The models were 10-fold cross-validated. 359 patients were included in the study (atrial fibrillation n = 169, sinus rhythm n = 190). The autocorrelation univariate predictor model detected atrial fibrillation with the highest area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) value of 0.982 (sensitivity 95.1%, specificity 93.7%). Autocorrelation was also the most significant individual feature (p < 0.00001) in the multivariate predictor model, detecting atrial fibrillation with AUC of 0.993 (sensitivity 96.4%, specificity 96.3%). Our results demonstrated that the autocorrelation independently detects atrial fibrillation reliably without the need of pulse detection. Combining pulse wave morphology-based features such as autocorrelation with information from pulse-interval variability it is possible to detect atrial fibrillation with high accuracy with a commercial wrist band. Photoplethysmography wrist bands accompanied with atrial fibrillation detection algorithms utilizing autocorrelation could provide a computationally very effective and reliable wearable monitoring method in screening of atrial fibrillation.