Data_Sheet_1_Wild-Type MIC Distribution for Re-evaluating the Critical Concentration of Anti-TB Drugs and Pharmacodynamics Among Tuberculosis Patients From South India.docx
The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed specific guidelines for critical concentrations (CCs) of antibiotics used for tuberculosis (TB) treatment, which is universally followed for drug susceptibility testing (DST) of clinical specimens. However, the CC of drugs can differ significantly among the mycobacterial species based on the population, geographic location, and the prevalence of the infecting strain in a particular area. The association between CC and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of anti-TB drugs is poorly understood. In this study, we assessed the MICs of anti-TB drugs, including isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RMP), moxifloxacin (MXF), ethambutol (ETH), and p-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) on drug-sensitive Mtb isolates from pulmonary TB patients in South India. The MIC assays performed using solid- and liquid-growth media showed changes in the CC of a few of the tested antibiotics compared with the WHO-recommended levels. Our observation suggests that the WHO guidelines could potentially lead to overdiagnosis of drug-resistant cases, which can result in inappropriate therapeutic decisions. To evaluate the correlation between drug-resistance and CC, we performed the whole-genome sequencing for 16 mycobacterial isolates, including two wild-type and 14 resistant isolates. Our results showed that two of the isolates belonged to the W-Beijing lineage, while the rest were of the East-African–Indian type. We identified a total of 74 mutations, including five novel mutations, which are known to be associated with resistance to anti-TB drugs in these isolates. In our previous study, we determined the serum levels of INH and RMP among the same patients recruited in the current study and estimated the MICs of the corresponding infected isolates in these cases. Using these data and the CCs for INH and RMP from the present study, we performed pharmacodynamics (PD) evaluation. The results show that the PD of RMP was subtherapeutic. Together, these observations emphasize the need for optimizing the drug dosage based on the PD of large-scale studies conducted in different geographical settings.