Data_Sheet_1_Wide Cytokine Analysis in Cerebrospinal Fluid at Diagnosis Identified CCL-3 as a Possible Prognostic Factor for Multiple Sclerosis.pdf

Background: Apart from IgG oligoclonal bands, no other biomarker has, to date, been validated for diagnostic and/or prognostic purposes in multiple sclerosis (MS).

Aim: To investigate a wide panel of cytokines and chemokines in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of relapsing–remitting MS (RRMS) patients and evaluate their association with clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters, as well as their predictive clinical value.

Methods: Fifty-one RRMS at clinical onset and 17 other not inflammatory neurological disorders (ONINDs) underwent brain MRI (including 3D-T1, 3D-FLAIR, and 3-DIR sequences) and CSF examination. Eighty-seven cytokines and chemokines were analyzed in CSF by Multiplex technology.

Results: Compared to ONIND, CXCL-10, CXCL-11, CXCL-13, CCL-1, CCL-2, CCL-3, CCL-22, IL-16, and BAFF were significantly (p < 0.05) increased in RRMS CSF. However, only CCL-3 was associated with both MS diagnosis and IgGOB detection. Based on a 95%CI in ONIND (cut-off value: 0.798 pg/ml) and ROC analysis (cut-off value: 0.495 pg/ml), RRMS patients were stratified in CCL-3high (>0.736 pg/mL), CCL-3medium, and CCL-3low (<0.495 pg/ml). Survival analysis disclosed a strong association between high CCL-3 values and disease reactivation (OR = 4.9, 95%CI: 1.8–13.3, p < 0.005) in the following 2 years.

Conclusions: CCL-3 deserves further investigation as a candidate prognostic biomarker for RRMS.