Data_Sheet_1_Transcriptome Dynamics Underlying Chlamydospore Formation in Trichoderma virens GV29-8.pdf
Trichoderma spp. are widely used biocontrol agents which are antagonistic to a variety of plant pathogens. Chlamydospores are a type of propagules produced by many fungi that have thick walls and are highly resistant to adverse environmental conditions. Chlamydospore preparations of Trichoderma spp. can withstand various storage conditions, have a longer shelf life than conidial preparations and have better application potential. However, large-scale production of chlamydospores has proven difficult. To understand the molecular mechanisms governing chlamydospore formation (CF) in Trichoderma fungi, we performed a comprehensive analysis of transcriptome dynamics during CF across 8 different developmental time points, which were divided into 4 stages according to PCA analysis: the mycelium growth stage (S1), early and middle stage of CF (S2), flourishing stage of CF (S3), and late stage of CF and mycelia initial autolysis (S4). 2864, 3206, and 3630 DEGs were screened from S2 vs S1, S3 vs S2, and S4 vs S3, respectively. We then identified the pathways and genes that play important roles in each stage of CF by GO, KEGG, STC and WGCNA analysis. The results showed that DEGs in the S2 vs S1 were mainly enriched in organonitrogen compound metabolism, those in S3 vs S2 were mainly involved in secondary metabolite, cell cycle, and N-glycan biosynthesis, and DEGs in S4 vs S3 were mainly involved in lipid, glycogen, and chitin metabolic processes. We speculated that mycelial assimilation and absorption of exogenous nitrogen in the early growth stage (S1), resulted in subsequent nitrogen deficiency (S2). At the same time, secondary metabolites and active oxygen free radicals released during mycelial growth produced an adverse growth environment. The resulting nitrogen-deficient and toxin enriched medium may stimulate cell differentiation by initiating cell cycle regulation to induce morphological transformation of mycelia into chlamydospores. High expression of genes relating to glycogen, lipid, mannan, and chitin synthetic metabolic pathways during the flourishing (S3) and late stages (S4) of CF may be conducive to energy storage and cell wall construction in chlamydospores. For further verifying the functions of the amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism (tre00520) pathway in the CF of T. virens GV29-8 strain, the chitin synthase gene (TRIVIDRAFT_90152), one key gene of the pathway, was deleted and resulted in the dysplasia of mycelia and an incapability to form normal chlamydospores, which illustrated the pathway affecting the CF of T. virens GV29-8 strain. Our results provide a new perspective for understanding the genetics of biochemical pathways involved in CF of Trichoderma spp.