Data_Sheet_1_Theta Oscillations Alternate With High Amplitude Neocortical Population Within Synchronized States.docx

Synchronized states are marked by large-amplitude low-frequency oscillations in the cortex. These states can be seen during quiet waking or slow-wave sleep. Within synchronized states, previous studies have noted a plethora of different types of activity, including delta oscillations (0.5–4 Hz) and slow oscillations (<1 Hz) in the neocortex and large- and small- irregular activity in the hippocampus. However, it is not still fully characterized how neural populations contribute to the synchronized state. Here we apply independent component analysis to parse which populations are involved in different kinds of neocortical activity, and find two populations that alternate throughout synchronized states. One population broadly affects neocortical deep layers, and is associated with larger amplitude slower neocortical oscillations. The other population exhibits theta-frequency oscillations that are not easily observed in raw field potential recordings. These theta oscillations apparently come from below the neocortex, suggesting hippocampal origin, and are associated with smaller amplitude faster neocortical oscillations. Relative involvement of these two alternating populations may indicate different modes of operation within synchronized states.