Data_Sheet_1_The Performance Index Identifies Changes Across the Dual Task Timed Up and Go Test Phases and Impacts Task-Cost Estimation in the Oldest-Old.docx
Introduction: Dual tasking is common in activities of daily living (ADLs) and the ability to perform them usually declines with age. While cognitive aspects influence dual task (DT) performance, most DT-cost (DT-C) related metrics include only time- or speed- delta without weighting the accuracy of cognitive replies involved in the task.
Objectives: The primary study goal was to weight the accuracy of cognitive replies as a contributing factor when estimating DT-C using a new index of DT-C that considers the accuracy of cognitive replies (P-index) in the instrumented timed up and go test (iTUG). Secondarily, to correlate the novel P-index with domains of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE).
Methods: Sixty-three participants (≥85 years old) took part in this study. The single task (ST) and DT iTUG tests were performed in a semi-random order. Both the time taken to complete the task measured utilizing an inertial measurement unit (IMU), and the accuracy of the cognitive replies were used to create the novel P-index. Clinical and sociodemographic data were collected.
Results: The accuracy of the cognitive replies changed across the iTUG phases, particularly between the walk 1 and walk 2 phases. Moreover, weighting 0.6 for delta-time (W1) and 0.4 for cognitive replies (W2) into the P-index enhanced the prediction of the MMSE score. The novel P-index was able to explain 37% of the scores obtained by the fallers in the “spatial orientation” and “attention” domains of the MMSE. The ability of the P-index to predict MMSE scores was not significantly influenced by age, schooling, and number of medicines in use. The Bland-Altman analysis indicated a substantial difference between the time-delta-based DT-C and P-index methods, which was within the limits of agreement.
Conclusions: The P-index incorporates the accuracy of cognitive replies when calculating the DT-C and better reflects the variance of the MMSE in comparison with the traditional time- or speed-delta approaches, thus providing an improved method to estimate the DT-C.