Data_Sheet_1_The Mechanism Underlying of Long-Term Stable Indigo Reduction State in Indigo Fermentation Using Sukumo (Composted Polygonum tinctorium L.docx (2.5 MB)
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Data_Sheet_1_The Mechanism Underlying of Long-Term Stable Indigo Reduction State in Indigo Fermentation Using Sukumo (Composted Polygonum tinctorium Leaves).docx

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posted on 23.07.2021, 04:51 by Zhihao Tu, Helena de Fátima Silva Lopes, Takashi Narihiro, Isao Yumoto

Indigo fermentation fluid maintains its indigo-reducing state for more than 6 months under open-air. To elucidate the mechanism underlying the sustainability of this indigo reduction state, three indigo fermentation batches with different durations for the indigo reduction state were compared. The three examined batches exhibited different microbiota and consisted of two phases. In the initial phase, oxygen-metabolizing-bacteria derived from sukumo established an initial network. With decreasing redox potential (ORP), the initial bacterial community was replaced by obligate anaerobes (mainly Proteinivoraceae; phase 1). Approximately 1 month after the beginning of fermentation, the predominating obligate anaerobes were decreased, and Amphibacillus and Polygonibacillus, which can decompose macromolecules derived from wheat bran, were predominantly observed, and the transition of microbiota became slow (phase 2). Considering the substrate utilization ability of the dominated bacterial taxa, the transitional change from phase 1 to phase 2 suggests that this changed from the bacterial flora that utilizes substrates derived from sukumo, including intrinsic substrates in sukumo and weakened or dead bacterial cells derived from early events (heat and alkaline treatment and reduction of ORP) to that of wheat bran-utilizers. This succession was directly related to the change in the major substrate sustaining the corresponding community and the turning point was approximately 1 month after the start of fermentation. As a result, we understand that the role of sukumo includes changes in the microbial flora immediately after the start of fermentation, which has an important function in the start-up phase of fermentation, whereas the ecosystem comprised of the microbiota utilizing wheat bran underpins the subsequent long-term indigo reduction.

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