Data_Sheet_1_The Immunogenicity and Anti-tumor Efficacy of a Rationally Designed Neoantigen Vaccine for B16F10 Mouse Melanoma.docx (150.31 kB)
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Data_Sheet_1_The Immunogenicity and Anti-tumor Efficacy of a Rationally Designed Neoantigen Vaccine for B16F10 Mouse Melanoma.docx

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posted on 05.11.2019, 04:02 by Yan Zhang, Zhibing Lin, Yuhua Wan, Huaman Cai, Li Deng, Rongxiu Li

Tumor neoantigens are ideal targets for cancer immunotherapy as they are recognized by host immune system as foreigners and can elicit tumor-specific immune responses. However, existing strategies utilizing RNA or long peptides for the neoantigen vaccines render limited immune responses since only 20–30% of neoantigens predicted in silico to bind MHC I molecules are capable of eliciting immune responses with the majority of responding T cells are CD4+. Therefore, it warrants further exploration to enhance neoantigen-specific CD8+ T cells responses. Since neoantigens are naturally weak antigens, we asked whether foreign T help epitopes could enhance their immunogenicity. In present study, we chose 4 weak B16F10 neoantigens as vaccine targets, and fused them to the transmembrane domain of diphtheria toxin, namely DTT-neoAg. Strikingly, the vaccine elicited anti-tumor CD8+ T cells responses and enhanced tumor infiltration of both T cells and NK cells. Impressively, DTT-neoAg vaccine significantly deterred tumor growth with the inhibition rate reached 88% in the preventive model and 100% in the therapeutic model at low dose of tumor challenge. Furthermore, after second challenge with higher dose of tumor cells, 33.3% of the immunized mice remained tumor-free for 6 months in the therapeutic model. Because DTT is a non-toxic domain of diphtheria toxin, it may be not of great concern in terms of safety as a Th epitope provider. Thus, the fusion strategy employed by this study may become a feasible and powerful approach for development of personalized cancer vaccines.

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