Data_Sheet_1_Teriflunomide Is an Indirect Human Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) Activator Interacting With Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) Signaling.pdf
The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a nuclear receptor involved mainly in xenobiotic and endobiotic metabolism regulation. CAR is activated directly by its ligands via the ligand binding domain (LBD) or indirectly by inhibition of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling. We found that leflunomide (LEF) and its main metabolite teriflunomide (TER), both used for autoimmune diseases treatment, induce the prototype CAR target gene CYP2B6 in primary human hepatocytes. As TER was discovered to be an EGF receptor antagonist, we sought to determine if TER is an indirect activator of CAR. In primary human hepatocytes and in differentiated HepaRG cells, we found that LEF and TER up-regulate CAR target genes CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 mRNAs and enzymatic activities. TER stimulated CAR+A mutant translocation into the nucleus but neither LEF nor TER activated the CAR LBD, CAR3 variant or pregnane X receptor (PXR) in gene reporter assays. Interestingly, TER significantly up-regulated CAR mRNA expression, a result which could be a consequence of both EGF receptor and ELK-1 transcription factor inhibition by TER or by TER-mediated activation of glucocorticoid receptor (GR), an upstream hormonal regulator of CAR. We can conclude that TER is a novel indirect CAR activator which through EGF inhibition and GR activation controls both detoxification and some intermediary metabolism genes.
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