Data_Sheet_1_Surveillance During REM Sleep for the First-Night Effect.PDF (2.49 MB)

Data_Sheet_1_Surveillance During REM Sleep for the First-Night Effect.PDF

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posted on 29.10.2019 by Masako Tamaki, Yuka Sasaki

We experience disturbed sleep in a new place, and this effect is known as the first-night effect (FNE) in sleep research. We previously demonstrated that the FNE is associated with a surveillance system in one brain hemisphere during NREM sleep, which manifests as interhemispheric asymmetry in sleep depth in the default-mode network (DMN) and increased vigilance toward monitoring external stimuli. This surveillance system may be useful for protecting vulnerable sleepers from abnormal events in unfamiliar environments. The present study investigated whether a similar surveillance system is exhibited during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. The impacts of the FNE could be different between the phasic period, in which eyes move rapidly, and the tonic period, in which eye movement ceases, of REM sleep; without the FNE, vigilance to external stimuli is generally reduced during the phasic period but not the tonic period. Thus, REM sleep was split into phasic and tonic periods. First, we replicated previous findings showing interhemispheric asymmetry in delta activity in the DMN associated with the FNE during NREM sleep. However, during REM sleep, interhemispheric asymmetry in delta activity or theta activities, two oscillatory activities during REM sleep, was not found during the phasic or tonic periods. Next, we tested whether vigilance, as measured by evoked brain responses (P2) to deviant tones, associated with the FNE was increased in one hemisphere during REM sleep. The P2 amplitudes during the phasic period were augmented by the FNE on day 1 and were significantly larger than those on day 2 when the FNE was not present. In contrast, the P2 amplitudes during the tonic period were not different across days. The P2 amplitudes showed no interhemispheric asymmetry during the phasic or tonic periods. These results suggest that while the surveillance system exhibits interhemispheric asymmetry in sleep depth and vigilance during NREM sleep, this system shows no interhemispheric asymmetry in oscillatory activities and exhibits increased vigilance in both hemispheres only during the phasic period of REM sleep. Therefore, the surveillance system associated with the FNE may involve different mechanisms during NREM and REM sleep.

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