Data_Sheet_1_Rapid and Accurate Species Identification of Mitis Group Streptococci Using the MinION Nanopore Sequencer.PDF
Differentiation between mitis group streptococci (MGS) bacteria in routine laboratory tests has become important for obtaining accurate epidemiological information on the characteristics of MGS and understanding their clinical significance. The most reliable method of MGS species identification is multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) with seven house-keeping genes; however, because this method is time-consuming, it is deemed unsuitable for use in most clinical laboratories. In this study, we established a scheme for identifying 12 species of MGS (S. pneumoniae, S. pseudopneumoniae, S. mitis, S. oralis, S. peroris, S. infantis, S. australis, S. parasanguinis, S. sinensis, S. sanguinis, S. gordonii, and S. cristatus) using the MinION nanopore sequencer (Oxford Nanopore Technologies, Oxford, UK) with the taxonomic aligner “What's in My Pot?” (WIMP; Oxford Nanopore's cloud-based analysis platform) and Kraken2 pipeline with the custom database adjusted for MGS species identification. The identities of the species in reference genomes (n = 514), clinical isolates (n = 31), and reference strains (n = 4) were confirmed via MLSA. The nanopore simulation reads were generated from reference genomes, and the optimal cut-off values for MGS species identification were determined. For 31 clinical isolates (S. pneumoniae = 8, S. mitis = 17 and S. oralis = 6) and 4 reference strains (S. pneumoniae = 1, S. mitis = 1, S. oralis = 1, and S. pseudopneumoniae = 1), a sequence library was constructed via a Rapid Barcoding Sequencing Kit for multiplex and real-time MinION sequencing. The optimal cut-off values for the identification of MGS species for analysis by WIMP and Kraken2 pipeline were determined. The workflow using Kraken2 pipeline with a custom database identified all 12 species of MGS, and WIMP identified 8 MGS bacteria except S. infantis, S. australis, S. peroris, and S. sinensis. The results obtained by MinION with WIMP and Kraken2 pipeline were consistent with the MGS species identified by MLSA analysis. The practical advantage of whole genome analysis using the MinION nanopore sequencer is that it can aid in MGS surveillance. We concluded that MinION sequencing with the taxonomic aligner enables accurate MGS species identification and could contribute to further epidemiological surveys.