Data_Sheet_1_Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping of Flowering Time and Maturity in Soybean Using Next-Generation Sequencing-Based

Soybean (Glycine max L.) is a major legume crop that is mainly distributed in temperate regions. The adaptability of soybean to grow at relatively high latitudes is attributed to natural variations in major genes and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control flowering time and maturity. Identification of new QTLs and map-based cloning of candidate genes are the fundamental approaches in elucidating the mechanism underlying soybean flowering and adaptation. To identify novel QTLs/genes, we developed two F8:10 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and evaluated the traits of time to flowering (R1), maturity (R8), and reproductive period (RP) in the field. To rapidly and efficiently identify QTLs that control these traits, next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based QTL analysis was performed. This study demonstrates that only one major QTL on chromosome 4 simultaneously controls R1, R8, and RP traits in the Dongnong 50 × Williams 82 (DW) RIL population. Furthermore, three QTLs were mapped to chromosomes 6, 11, and 16 in the Suinong 14 × Enrei (SE) RIL population. Two major pleiotropic QTLs on chromosomes 4 and 6 were shown to affect flowering time, maturity, and RP. A QTL influencing RP was identified on chromosome 11, and QTL on chromosome 16 was associated with time to flowering responses. All these QTLs contributed to soybean maturation. The QTLs identified in this study may be utilized in fine mapping and map-based cloning of candidate genes to elucidate the mechanisms underlying flowering and soybean adaptation to different latitudes and to breed novel soybean cultivars with optimal yield-related traits.