Data_Sheet_1_Preventive Medication Patterns in Bipolar Disorder and Their Relationship With Comorbid Substance Use Disorders in a Cross-National Observational Study.DOCX
The potential role of sub-optimal pharmacological treatment in the poorer outcomes observed in bipolar disorder (BD) with vs. without comorbid substance use disorders (SUDs) is not known. Thus, we investigated whether patients with BD and comorbid SUD had different medication regimens than those with BD alone, in samples from France and Norway, focusing on compliance to international guidelines.Methods
Seven hundred and seventy patients from France and Norway with reliably ascertained BD I or II (68% BD-I) were included. Medication information was obtained from patients and hospital records, and preventive treatment was categorized according to compliance to guidelines. We used Bayesian and regression analyses to investigate associations between SUD comorbidity and medication. In the Norwegian subsample, we also investigated association with lack of medication.Results
Comorbid SUDs were as follows: current tobacco smoking, 26%, alcohol use disorder (AUD), 16%; cannabis use disorder (CUD), 10%; other SUDs, 5%. Compliance to guidelines for preventive medication was lacking in 8%, partial in 44%, and complete in 48% of the sample. Compliance to guidelines was not different in BD with and without SUD comorbidity, as was supported by Bayesian analyses (highest Bayes Factor = 0.16). Cross national differences in treatment regimens led us to conduct country-specific adjusted regression analyses, showing that (1) CUD was associated with increased antipsychotics use in France (OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.4–3.9, p = 0.001), (2) current tobacco smoking was associated with increased anti-epileptics use in Norway (OR = 4.4, 95% CI = 1.9–11, p < 0.001), and (3) AUD was associated with decreased likelihood of being medicated in Norway (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.04–1.3, p = 0.038).Conclusion
SUD comorbidity in BD was overall not associated with different pharmacological treatment in our sample, and not related to the level of compliance to guidelines. We found country-specific associations between comorbid SUDs and specific medications that warrant further studies.