Data_Sheet_1_Plasma p-tau181 Level Predicts Neurodegeneration and Progression to Alzheimer's Dementia: A Longitudinal Study.ZIP (2.71 MB)
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Data_Sheet_1_Plasma p-tau181 Level Predicts Neurodegeneration and Progression to Alzheimer's Dementia: A Longitudinal Study.ZIP

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posted on 07.09.2021, 04:30 authored by Yan-Li Wang, Jinglong Chen, Zhong-Li Du, Haoyi Weng, Yuan Zhang, Runzhi Li, Ziyan Jia, Mengfan Sun, Jiwei Jiang, Fang-Ze Wang, Jun Xu, Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative

Background: Plasma-based biomarkers would be potential biomarkers for early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) because they are more available and cost-effective than cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or neuroimaging. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate whether phosphorylated tau181 (p-tau181) in plasma could be an accurate AD predictor.

Methods: Participants from the ADNI database included 185 cognitively unimpaired subjects with negative Aβ (CU–), 66 subjects with pre-clinical AD (CU with positive Aβ), 164 subjects with mild cognitive impairment with negative Aβ (MCI–), 254 subjects with prodromal AD (MCI with positive Aβ), and 98 subjects with dementia. Multiple linear regression models, linear mixed-effects models, and local regression were used to explore cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of plasma p-tau181 with cognition, neuroimaging, or CSF biomarkers adjusted for age, sex, education, and APOE genotype. Besides, Kaplan–Meier and adjusted Cox-regression model were performed to predict the risk of progression to dementia. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed to evaluate the predictive value of p-tau181.

Results: Plasma p-tau181 level was highest in AD dementia, followed by prodromal AD and pre-clinical AD. In pre-clinical AD, plasma p-tau181 was negatively associated with hippocampal volume (β = −0.031, p-value = 0.017). In prodromal AD, plasma p-tau181 was associated with decreased global cognition, executive function, memory, language, and visuospatial functioning (β range −0.119 to −0.273, p-value < 0.05) and correlated with hippocampal volume (β = −0.028, p-value < 0.005) and white matter hyperintensity volume (WMH) volume (β = 0.02, p-value = 0.01). In AD dementia, increased plasma p-tau181 was associated with worse memory. In the whole group, baseline plasma p-tau181 was significantly associated with longitudinal increases in multiple neuropsychological test z-scores and correlated with AD-related CSF biomarkers and hippocampal volume (p-value < 0.05). Meanwhile, CU or MCI with high plasma p-tau181 carried a higher risk of progression to dementia. The area under the curve (AUC) of the adjusted model (age, sex, education, APOE genotype, and plasma p-tau181) was 0.78; that of additionally included CSF biomarkers was 0.84.

Conclusions: Plasma p-tau181 level is related to multiple AD-associated cognitive domains and AD-related CSF biomarkers at the clinical stages of AD. Moreover, plasma p-tau181 level is related to the change rates of cognitive decline and hippocampal atrophy. Thus, this study confirms the utility of plasma p-tau181 as a non-invasive biomarker for early detection and prediction of AD.