Data_Sheet_1_Plant Copper Metalloenzymes As Prospects for New Metabolism Involving Aromatic Compounds.PDF
Copper is an important transition metal cofactor in plant metabolism, which enables diverse biocatalysis in aerobic environments. Multiple classes of plant metalloenzymes evolved and underwent genetic expansions during the evolution of terrestrial plants and, to date, several representatives of these copper enzyme classes have characterized mechanisms. In this review, we give an updated overview of chemistry, structure, mechanism, function and phylogenetic distribution of plant copper metalloenzymes with an emphasis on biosynthesis of aromatic compounds such as phenylpropanoids (lignin, lignan, flavonoids) and cyclic peptides with macrocyclizations via aromatic amino acids. We also review a recent addition to plant copper enzymology in a copper-dependent peptide cyclase called the BURP domain. Given growing plant genetic resources, a large pool of copper biocatalysts remains to be characterized from plants as plant genomes contain on average more than 70 copper enzyme genes. A major challenge in characterization of copper biocatalysts from plant genomes is the identification of endogenous substrates and catalyzed reactions. We highlight some recent and future trends in filling these knowledge gaps in plant metabolism and the potential for genomic discovery of copper-based enzymology from plants.