Data_Sheet_1_Novel Mode of Molybdate Inhibition of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough.pdf
Sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) are found in multiple environments and play a major role in global carbon and sulfur cycling. Because of their growth capabilities and association with metal corrosion, controlling the growth of SRM has become of increased interest. One such mechanism of control has been the use of molybdate (MoO42−), which is thought to be a specific inhibitor of SRM. The way in which molybdate inhibits the growth of SRM has been enigmatic. It has been reported that molybdate is involved in a futile energy cycle with the sulfate-activating enzyme, sulfate adenylyl transferase (Sat), which results in loss of cellular ATP. However, we show here that a deletion of this enzyme in the model SRM, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, remained sensitive to molybdate. We performed several subcultures of the ∆sat strain in the presence of increasing concentrations of molybdate and obtained a culture with increased resistance to the inhibitor (up to 3 mM). The culture was re-sequenced and three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified that were not present in the parental strain. Two of the SNPs seemed unlikely candidates for molybdate resistance due to a lack of conservation of the mutated residues in homologous genes of closely related strains. The remaining SNP was located in DVU2210, a protein containing two domains: a YcaO-like domain and a tetratricopeptide-repeat domain. The SNP resulted in a change of a serine residue to arginine in the ATP-hydrolyzing motif of the YcaO-like domain. Deletion mutants of each of the three genes apparently enriched with SNPs in the presence of inhibitory molybdate and combinations of these genes were generated in the Δsat and wild-type strains. Strains lacking both sat and DVU2210 became more resistant to molybdate. Deletions of the other two genes in which SNPs were observed did not result in increased resistance to molybdate. YcaO-like proteins are distributed across the bacterial and archaeal domains, though the function of these proteins is largely unknown. The role of this protein in D. vulgaris is unknown. Due to the distribution of YcaO-like proteins in prokaryotes, the veracity of molybdate as a specific SRM inhibitor should be reconsidered.