Data_Sheet_1_Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing for Diagnosis of Infectious Encephalitis and Meningitis: A Large, Prospective Case Series of 213 Patients.docx
Purpose: We assessed the performance of metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) in the diagnosis of infectious encephalitis and meningitis.
Methods: This was a prospective multicenter study. Cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with viral encephalitis and/or meningitis, tuberculous meningitis, bacterial meningitis, fungal meningitis, and non-central nervous system (CNS) infections were subjected to mNGS.
Results: In total, 213 patients with infectious and non-infectious CNS diseases were finally enrolled from November 2016 to May 2019; the mNGS-positive detection rate of definite CNS infections was 57.0%. At a species-specific read number (SSRN) ≥2, mNGS performance in the diagnosis of definite viral encephalitis and/or meningitis was optimal (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.659, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.566–0.751); the positivity rate was 42.6%. At a genus-specific read number ≥1, mNGS performance in the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (definite or probable) was optimal (AUC=0.619, 95% CI=0.516–0.721); the positivity rate was 27.3%. At SSRNs ≥5 or 10, the diagnostic performance was optimal for definite bacterial meningitis (AUC=0.846, 95% CI = 0.711–0.981); the sensitivity was 73.3%. The sensitivities of mNGS (at SSRN ≥2) in the diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis and cerebral aspergillosis were 76.92 and 80%, respectively.
Conclusion: mNGS of cerebrospinal fluid effectively identifies pathogens causing infectious CNS diseases. mNGS should be used in conjunction with conventional microbiological testing.
Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR1800020442.