Data_Sheet_1_Metagenomic Insights Into the Contribution of Phages to Antibiotic Resistance in Water Samples Related to Swine Feedlot Wastewater Treatment.docx
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In this study, we examined the types of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) possessed by bacteria and bacteriophages in swine feedlot wastewater before and after treatment using a metagenomics approach. We found that the relative abundance of ARGs in bacterial DNA in all water samples was significantly higher than that in phages DNA (>10.6-fold), and wastewater treatment did not significantly change the relative abundance of bacterial- or phage-associated ARGs. We further detected the distribution and diversity of the different types of ARGs according to the class of antibiotics to which they confer resistance, the tetracycline resistance genes were the most abundant resistance genes and phages were more likely to harbor ATP-binding cassette transporter family and ribosomal protection genes. Moreover, the colistin resistance gene mcr-1 was also detected in the phage population. When assessing the contribution of phages in spreading different groups of ARGs, β-lactamase resistance genes had a relatively high spreading ability even though the abundance was low. These findings possibly indicated that phages not only could serve as important reservoir of ARG but also carry particular ARGs in swine feedlot wastewater, and this phenomenon is independent of the environment.
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