Data_Sheet_1_Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Visible Perivascular Spaces in the Basal Ganglia Are Associated With the Diabetic Retinopathy Stage and Cognitive Decline in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes.docx
Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether perivascular space (PVS) severity and retinal ganglion cell layer (GCL) thickness differed based on the stage of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and the cognitive status in patients with DR.
Methods: A total of 81 patients with DR (51 in the non-proliferative group and 30 in the proliferative group) were included in this retrospective, cross-sectional study. PVS severity was assessed in the basal ganglia (BG) and centrum semiovale using MRI. The total cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) score was determined based on the numbers of lacunes and microbleeds and the severity of white matter hyperintensity. Optical coherence tomography was used to measure foveal and perifoveal GCL thicknesses. Cerebral SVD markers and cognitive function were compared between the groups, and correlations between the BG-PVS severity and the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) scores and GCL parameters were evaluated.
Results: Patients with proliferative DR had higher BG-PVS severity (P = 0.012), higher total cerebral SVD scores (P = 0.035), reduced GCL thicknesses in the inferior (P = 0.027), superior (P = 0.046), and temporal (P = 0.038) subfields compared to patients with non-proliferative DR. In addition, the BG-PVS severity was negatively correlated with the MMSE score (P = 0.007), and the GCL thickness was negatively correlated with the BG-PVS severity (P-values < 0.05 for inferior, superior, and temporal subfields).
Conclusion: BG-PVS severity and retinal GCL thickness may represent novel imaging biomarkers reflecting the stage of DR and cognitive decline in diabetic patients. Furthermore, these results suggest a possible link between cerebral and retinal neurodegeneration at the clinical level.