Data_Sheet_1_Longitudinal Neuroimaging in Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury: Current State and Consideration of Factors That Influence Recovery.PDF (179.03 kB)

Data_Sheet_1_Longitudinal Neuroimaging in Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury: Current State and Consideration of Factors That Influence Recovery.PDF

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posted on 13.12.2019, 04:27 by Hannah M. Lindsey, Elisabeth A. Wilde, Karen Caeyenberghs, Emily L. Dennis

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability for children and adolescents in the U.S. and other developed and developing countries. Injury to the immature brain varies greatly from that of the mature, adult brain due to numerous developmental, pre-injury, and injury-related factors that work together to influence the trajectory of recovery during the course of typical brain development. Substantial damage to brain structure often underlies subsequent functional limitations that persist for years following pediatric TBI. Advances in neuroimaging have established an important role in the acute management of pediatric TBI, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have a particular relevance for the sequential assessment of long-term consequences from injuries sustained to the developing brain. The present paper will discuss the various factors that influence recovery and review the findings from the present neuroimaging literature to assess altered development and long-term outcome following pediatric TBI. Four MR-based neuroimaging modalities have been used to examine recovery from pediatric TBI longitudinally: (1) T1-weighted structural MRI is sensitive to morphological changes in gray matter volume and cortical thickness, (2) diffusion-weighted MRI is sensitive to changes in the microstructural integrity of white matter, (3) MR spectroscopy provides a sensitive assessment of metabolic and neurochemical alterations in the brain, and (4) functional MRI provides insight into the functional changes that occur as a result of structural damage and typical developmental processes. As reviewed in this paper, 13 cohorts have contributed to only 20 studies published to date using neuroimaging to examine longitudinal changes after TBI in pediatric patients. The results of these studies demonstrate considerable heterogeneity in post-injury outcome; however, the existing literature consistently shows that alterations in brain structure, function, and metabolism can persist for an extended period of time post-injury. With larger sample sizes and multi-site cooperation, future studies will be able to further examine potential moderators of outcome, such as the developmental, pre-injury, and injury-related factors discussed in the present review.

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