Data_Sheet_1_Interactions Between Tsetse Endosymbionts and Glossina pallidipes Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus in Glossina Hosts.docx
Tsetse flies are the sole cyclic vector for trypanosomosis, the causative agent for human African trypanosomosis or sleeping sickness and African animal trypanosomosis or nagana. Tsetse population control is the most efficient strategy for animal trypanosomosis control. Among all tsetse control methods, the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is one of the most powerful control tactics to suppress or eradicate tsetse flies. However, one of the challenges for the implementation of SIT is the mass production of target species. Tsetse flies have a highly regulated and defined microbial fauna composed of three bacterial symbionts (Wigglesworthia, Sodalis and Wolbachia) and a pathogenic Glossina pallidipes Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus (GpSGHV) which causes reproduction alterations such as testicular degeneration and ovarian abnormalities with reduced fertility and fecundity. Interactions between symbionts and GpSGHV might affect the performance of the insect host. In the present study, we assessed the possible impact of GpSGHV on the prevalence of tsetse endosymbionts under laboratory conditions to decipher the bidirectional interactions on six Glossina laboratory species. The results indicate that tsetse symbiont densities increased over time in tsetse colonies with no clear impact of the GpSGHV infection on symbionts density. However, a positive correlation between the GpSGHV and Sodalis density was observed in Glossina fuscipes species. In contrast, a negative correlation between the GpSGHV density and symbionts density was observed in the other taxa. It is worth noting that the lowest Wigglesworthia density was observed in G. pallidipes, the species which suffers most from GpSGHV infection. In conclusion, the interactions between GpSGHV infection and tsetse symbiont infections seems complicated and affected by the host and the infection density of the GpSGHV and tsetse symbionts.