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Data_Sheet_1_Integrative and Conjugative Elements of Helicobacter pylori Are Hypothetical Virulence Factors Associated With Gastric Cancer.docx
Helicobacter pylori is a bacteria with high genome plasticity that has been associated with diverse gastric pathologies. The genetic diversity of this bacteria has limited the characterization of virulence factors associated with gastric cancer (GC). To identify potentially helpful disease biomarkers, we compared 38 complete genomes and 108 draft genomes of H. pylori isolated worldwide from patients with diverse gastric pathologies and 53 draft genomes of H. pylori isolated from Mexican patients with GC, intestinal metaplasia, gastritis, peptic ulcer, and dyspepsia. H. pylori strains isolated from GC were 3–11 times more likely to harbor any of seven genes encoded within an integrative and conjugative element (ICE) than H. pylori isolated from subjects with other gastric pathologies. We tested the cytopathic effects on AGS cells of selected H. pylori strains with known cytotoxin-associated gene pathogenicity island (cag-PAI) and ICE status (H. pylori strains 29CaP, 29CaCe, 62A9, 7C, 8822, and 26695) and the histopathological damage of H. pylori 29CaP and 62A9 in a mouse model. H. pylori 29CaP, which harbors a complete ICEHptfs3 but lacks cag-PAI, elicited distinctive morphology changes and higher histopathological scores compared with other H. pylori strains carrying cag-PAI and hybrid ICE with incomplete TFSS. The presence of intact segments of ICE regions might be a risk factor to develop GC that needs to be addressed in future studies.