Data_Sheet_1_Genome Recombination-Mediated tRNA Up-Regulation Conducts General Antibiotic Resistance of Bacteria at Early Stage.PDF
Bacterial antibiotic resistance sets a great challenge to human health. It seems that the bacteria can spontaneously evolve resistance against any antibiotic within a short time without the horizontal transfer of heterologous genes and before accumulating drug-resistant mutations. We have shown that the tRNA-mediated translational regulation counteracts the reactive oxygen species (ROS) in bacteria. In this study, we demonstrated that isolated and subcultured Escherichia coli elevated its tRNAs under antibiotic stress to rapidly provide antibiotic resistance, especially at the early stage, before upregulating the efflux pump and evolving resistance mutations. The DNA recombination system repaired the antibiotic-induced DNA breakage in the genome, causing numerous structural variations. These structural variations are overrepresented near the tRNA genes, which indicated the cause of tRNA up-regulation. Knocking out the recombination system abolished the up-regulation of tRNAs, and coincidently, they could hardly evolve antibiotic resistance in multiple antibiotics, respectively. With these results, we proposed a multi-stage model of bacterial antibiotic resistance in an isolated scenario: the early stage (recombination—tRNA up-regulation—translational regulation); the medium stage (up-regulation of efflux pump); the late stage (resistant mutations). These results also indicated that the bacterial DNA recombination system and tRNA could be targeted to retard the bacterial spontaneous drug resistance.