Data_Sheet_1_Genome-Wide Characterization of Host Transcriptional and Epigenetic Alterations During HIV Infection of T Lymphocytes.PDF
Background and methods: Host genomic alterations are closely related to dysfunction of CD4+ T lymphocytes in the HIV–host interplay. However, the roles of aberrant DNA methylation and gene expression in the response to HIV infection are not fully understood. We investigated the genome-wide DNA methylation and transcriptomic profiles in two HIV-infected T lymphocyte cell lines using high-throughput sequencing.
Results: Based on DNA methylation data, we identified 3,060 hypomethylated differentially methylated regions (DMRs) and 2,659 hypermethylated DMRs in HIV-infected cells. Transcription-factor-binding motifs were significantly associated with methylation alterations, suggesting that DNA methylation modulates gene expression by affecting the binding to transcription factors during HIV infection. In support of this hypothesis, genes with promoters overlapping with DMRs were enriched in the biological function related to transcription factor activities. Furthermore, the analysis of gene expression data identified 1,633 upregulated genes and 2,142 downregulated genes on average in HIV-infected cells. These differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were significantly enriched in apoptosis-related pathways. Our results suggest alternative splicing as an additional mechanism that may contribute to T-cell apoptosis during HIV infection. We also demonstrated a genome-scale correlation between DNA methylation and gene expression in HIV-infected cells. We identified 831 genes with alterations in both DNA methylation and gene expression, which were enriched in apoptosis. Our results were validated using various experimental methods. In addition, consistent with our in silico results, a luciferase assay showed that the activity of the PDX1 and SMAD3 promoters was significantly decreased in the presence of HIV proteins, indicating the potential of these genes as genetic markers of HIV infection.
Conclusions: Our results suggest important roles for DNA methylation and gene expression regulation in T-cell apoptosis during HIV infection. We propose a list of novel genes related to these processes for further investigation. This study also provides a comprehensive characterization of changes occurring at the transcriptional and epigenetic levels in T cells in response to HIV infection.
Read the peer-reviewed publication
- Transplantation Immunology
- Tumour Immunology
- Immunology not elsewhere classified
- Veterinary Immunology
- Animal Immunology
- Genetic Immunology
- Applied Immunology (incl. Antibody Engineering, Xenotransplantation and T-cell Therapies)
- Cellular Immunology
- Humoural Immunology and Immunochemistry
- Immunogenetics (incl. Genetic Immunology)
- Innate Immunity