Data_Sheet_1_Field ponding water exacerbates the dissemination of manure-derived antibiotic resistance genes from paddy soil to surrounding waterbodies.docx
Farmlands fertilized with livestock manure-derived amendments have become a hot topic in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Field ponding water connects rice paddies with surrounding water bodies, such as reservoirs, rivers, and lakes. However, there is a knowledge gap in understanding whether and how manure-borne ARGs can be transferred from paddy soil into field ponding water. Our studies suggest that the manure-derived ARGs aadA1, bla1, catA1, cmlA1-01, cmx(A), ermB, mepA and tetPB-01 can easily be transferred into field ponding water from paddy soil. The bacterial phyla Crenarchaeota, Verrucomicrobia, Cyanobacteria, Choloroflexi, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria are potential hosts of ARGs. Opportunistic pathogens detected in both paddy soil and field ponding water showed robust correlations with ARGs. Network co-occurrence analysis showed that mobile genetic elements (MGEs) were strongly correlated with ARGs. Our findings highlight that manure-borne ARGs and antibiotic-resistant bacteria in paddy fields can conveniently disseminate to the surrounding waterbodies through field ponding water, posing a threat to public health. This study provides a new perspective for comprehensively assessing the risk posed by ARGs in paddy ecosystems.