Data_Sheet_1_Exact Probability Landscapes of Stochastic Phenotype Switching in Feed-Forward Loops: Phase Diagrams of Multimodality.PDF (163.04 kB)
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Data_Sheet_1_Exact Probability Landscapes of Stochastic Phenotype Switching in Feed-Forward Loops: Phase Diagrams of Multimodality.PDF

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posted on 08.07.2021, 06:03 by Anna Terebus, Farid Manuchehrfar, Youfang Cao, Jie Liang

Feed-forward loops (FFLs) are among the most ubiquitously found motifs of reaction networks in nature. However, little is known about their stochastic behavior and the variety of network phenotypes they can exhibit. In this study, we provide full characterizations of the properties of stochastic multimodality of FFLs, and how switching between different network phenotypes are controlled. We have computed the exact steady-state probability landscapes of all eight types of coherent and incoherent FFLs using the finite-butter Accurate Chemical Master Equation (ACME) algorithm, and quantified the exact topological features of their high-dimensional probability landscapes using persistent homology. Through analysis of the degree of multimodality for each of a set of 10,812 probability landscapes, where each landscape resides over 105–106 microstates, we have constructed comprehensive phase diagrams of all relevant behavior of FFL multimodality over broad ranges of input and regulation intensities, as well as different regimes of promoter binding dynamics. In addition, we have quantified the topological sensitivity of the multimodality of the landscapes to regulation intensities. Our results show that with slow binding and unbinding dynamics of transcription factor to promoter, FFLs exhibit strong stochastic behavior that is very different from what would be inferred from deterministic models. In addition, input intensity play major roles in the phenotypes of FFLs: At weak input intensity, FFL exhibit monomodality, but strong input intensity may result in up to 6 stable phenotypes. Furthermore, we found that gene duplication can enlarge stable regions of specific multimodalities and enrich the phenotypic diversity of FFL networks, providing means for cells toward better adaptation to changing environment. Our results are directly applicable to analysis of behavior of FFLs in biological processes such as stem cell differentiation and for design of synthetic networks when certain phenotypic behavior is desired.

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