Data_Sheet_1_Electrophysiological Activity and Brain Network During Recovery of Propofol Anesthesia: A Stereoelectroencephalography-Based Analysis in Patients With Intractable Epilepsy—An Exploratory Research.docx
Background: The oscillations and interactions between different brain areas during recovery of consciousness (ROC) from anesthesia in humans are poorly understood. Reliable stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) signatures for transitions between unconsciousness and consciousness under anesthesia have not yet been fully identified.
Objective: This study was designed to observe the change of electrophysiological activity during ROC and construct a ROC network based on SEEG data to describe the network property of cortical and deep areas during ROC from propofol-induced anesthetic epileptic patients.
Methods: We analyzed SEEG data recorded from sixteen right-handed epileptic patients during ROC from propofol anesthesia from March 1, 2019, to December 31, 2019. Power spectrum density (PSD), correlation, and coherence were used to describe different brain areas' electrophysiological activity. The clustering coefficient, characteristic path length, modularity, network efficiency, degrees, and betweenness centrality were used to describe the network changes during ROC from propofol anesthesia. Statistical analysis was performed using MATLAB 2016b. The power spectral data from different contacts were analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test with Tukey's post-hoc correction. One sample t-test was used for the analysis of network property. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to judge data distribution. Non-normal distribution was analyzed using the signed rank-sum test.
Result: From the data of these 16 patients, 10 cortical, and 22 deep positions were observed. In this network, we observed that bilateral occipital areas are essential parts that have strong links with many regions. The recovery process is different in the bilateral cerebral cortex. Stage B (propofol 3.0-2.5 μg/ml) and E (propofol 1.5 μg/ml-ROC) play important roles during ROC exhibiting significant changes. The clustering coefficient gradually decreases with the recovery from anesthesia, and the changes mainly come from the cortical region. The characteristic path length and network efficiency do not change significantly during the recovery from anesthesia, and the changes of network modularity and clustering coefficient are similar. Deep areas tend to form functional modules. The left occipital lobe, the left temporal lobe, bilateral amygdala are essential nodes in the network. Some specific cortical regions (i.e., left angular gyrus, right angular gyrus, right temporal lobe, left temporal lobe, and right angular gyrus) and deep regions (i.e., right amygdala, left cingulate gyrus, right insular lobe, right amygdala) have more significant constraints on other regions.
Conclusion: We verified that the bilateral cortex's recovery process is the opposite, which is not found in the deep regions. Significant PSD changes were observed in many areas at the beginning of stop infusion and near recovery. Our study found that during the ROC process, the modularity and clustering coefficient of the deep area network is significantly improved. However, the changes of the bilateral cerebral cortex were different. Power spectrum analysis shows that low-frequency EEG in anesthesia recovery accounts for a large proportion. The changes of the bilateral brain in the process of anesthesia recovery are different. The clustering coefficient gradually decreased with the recovery from anesthesia, and the changes mainly came from the cortical region. The characteristic path length and network efficiency do not change significantly during the recovery from anesthesia, and the changes of network modularity and clustering coefficient were similar. During ROC, the left occipital lobe, the left temporal lobe, bilateral amygdala were essential nodes in the network. The findings of the current study suggest SEEG as an effective tool for providing direct evidence of the anesthesia recovery mechanism.