Data_Sheet_1_Early-Onset Diabetes as Risk Factor for Pancreatic Cancer: miRNA Expression Profiling in Plasma Uncovers a Role for miR-20b-5p, miR-29a, and miR-18a-5p in Diabetes of Recent Diagnosis.xlsx
The high prevalence of early-diabetes in patients with pancreatic cancer (PanC) implies that its recognition could help identify people at high risk of developing PanC. Candidate microRNAs (miRNAs) associated with recent diabetes were screened from our previous miRNA expression profiling on 10 pools of plasma from PanC patients and non-PanC controls, both including also subjects with early- and late-diabetes. The droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) was used to re-test candidate miRNAs in a new independent cohort of 69 subjects (40 PanC, 29 non-PanC) with early- (17 PanC, 13 non-PanC) or late-diabetes (23 PanC, 16 non-PanC), and in 100 non-diabetic healthy subjects (HS). miRNA levels were evaluated for differences between subjects enrolled into the study and for their diagnostic performance, also compared to the CA 19-9 determinations. MiR-20b-5p, miR-29a, and miR-18a-5p were selected from the previous miRNA expression profiling. The ddPCR confirmed the increase of miR-20b-5p and miR-29a levels in PanC with early- compared to those with late-diabetes. Conversely, miR-20b-5p, miR-29a, and miR-18a-5p were over-expressed in both PanC and non-PanC with recent diabetes compared to HS, and each miRNA achieved a similar diagnostic performance in distinguishing either PanC or non-PanC with early-diabetes from HS (miR-20b-5p: AUC = 0.877 vs. AUC = 0.873; miR-29a: AUC = 0.838 vs. AUC = 0.810; miR-18a-5p: AUC = 0.824 vs. AUC = 0.875). Despite miR-20b-5p and miR-29a expressions were also higher both in PanC and non-PanC with late-diabetes with respect to HS, the diagnostic accuracy in PanC with late-diabetes vs. HS reached by each miRNA (miR-20b-5p: AUC = 0.760; miR-29a: AUC = 0.630) was lower than the ones achieved in PanC with early-diabetes vs. HS. Furthermore, miR-20b-5p achieved a higher diagnostic accuracy to discriminate non-PanC with early-diabetes from HS (AUC = 0.868; SP = 81%; PPV = 32.1%) compared to the CA 19-9 (AUC = 0.700; SP = 40.0%; PPV = 15.5%), and the joint (miR-20b-5p and CA 19-9) discrimination ability was higher than the one achieved by the CA 19-9 tested alone (AUC = 0.900, p = 0.003). Our data highlighted the association between miR-18a-5p and early-diabetes, and suggested for miR-20b-5p and miR-29 a role in identifying early diabetes in PanC, albeit not as an early manifestation of cancer. MiR-20b-5p as more informative marker than CA 19-9 in distinguishing non-PanC with recent diabetes from HS was also uncovered.