Data_Sheet_1_EEG Microstate Sequences From Different Clustering Algorithms Are Information-Theoretically Invariant.pdf
We analyse statistical and information-theoretical properties of EEG microstate sequences, as seen through the lens of five different clustering algorithms. Microstate sequences are computed for n = 20 resting state EEG recordings during wakeful rest. The input for all clustering algorithms is the set of EEG topographic maps obtained at local maxima of the spatial variance. This data set is processed by two classical microstate clustering algorithms (1) atomize and agglomerate hierarchical clustering (AAHC) and (2) a modified K-means algorithm, as well as by (3) K-medoids, (4) principal component analysis (PCA) and (5) fast independent component analysis (Fast-ICA). Using this technique, EEG topographies can be substituted with microstate labels by competitive fitting based on spatial correlation, resulting in a symbolic, non-metric time series, the microstate sequence. Microstate topographies and symbolic time series are further analyzed statistically, including static and dynamic properties. Static properties, which do not contain information about temporal dependencies of the microstate sequence include the maximum similarity of microstate maps within and between the tested clustering algorithms, the global explained variance and the Shannon entropy of the microstate sequences. Dynamic properties are sensitive to temporal correlations between the symbols and include the mixing time of the microstate transition matrix, the entropy rate of the microstate sequences and the location of the first local maximum of the autoinformation function. We also test the Markov property of microstate sequences, the time stationarity of the transition matrix and detect periodicities by means of time-lagged mutual information. Finally, possible long-range correlations of microstate sequences are assessed via Hurst exponent estimation. We find that while static properties partially reflect properties of the clustering algorithms, information-theoretical quantities are largely invariant with respect to the clustering method used. As each clustering algorithm has its own profile of computational speed, ease of implementation, determinism vs. stochasticity and theoretical underpinnings, our results convey a positive message concerning the free choice of method and the comparability of results obtained from different algorithms. The invariance of these quantities implies that the tested properties are algorithm-independent, inherent features of resting state EEG derived microstate sequences.