Data_Sheet_1_Dual-Targeting Nanoparticle-Mediated Gene Therapy Strategy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Delivering Small Interfering RNA.pdf

As a gene therapy strategy, RNA interference (RNAi) offers tremendous tumor therapy potential. However, its therapeutic efficacy is restricted by its inferior ability for targeted delivery and cellular uptake of small interfering RNA (siRNA). This study sought to develop a dual-ligand nanoparticle (NP) system loaded with siRNA to promote targeted delivery and therapeutic efficacy. We synthesized a dual receptor-targeted chitosan nanosystem (GCGA), whose target function was controlled by the ligands of galactose of lactobionic acid (LA) and glycyrrhetinic acid (GA). By loading siPAK1, an siRNA targeting P21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1), a molecular-targeted therapeutic dual-ligand NP (GCGA–siPAK1) was established. We investigated the synergistic effect of these two targeting units in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In particular, GCGA–siPAK1 enhanced the NP targeting ability and promoted siPAK1 cell uptake. Subsequently, dramatic decreases in cell proliferation, invasion, and migration, with an apparent increase in cell apoptosis, were observed in treated cells. Furthermore, this dual-ligand NP gene delivery system demonstrated significant anti-tumor effects in tumor-bearing mice. Finally, we illuminated the molecular mechanism, whereby GCGA–siPAK1 promotes endogenous cell apoptosis through the PAK1/MEK/ERK pathway. Thus, the dual-target property effectively promotes the HCC therapeutic effect and provides a promising gene therapy strategy for clinical applications.