Data_Sheet_1_Deep Reference Mining From Scholarly Literature in the Arts and Humanities.pdf
We consider the task of reference mining: the detection, extraction and classification of references within the full text of scholarly publications. Reference mining brings forward specific challenges, such as the need to capture the morphology of highly abbreviated words and the dependence among the elements of a reference, both following codified reference styles. This task is particularly difficult, and little explored, with respect to the literature in the arts and humanities, where references are mostly given in footnotes. We apply a deep learning architecture for reference mining from the full text of scholarly publications. We explore and discuss three architectural components: word and character-level word embeddings, different prediction layers (Softmax and Conditional Random Fields) and multi-task over single-task learning. Our best model uses both pre-trained word embeddings and characters embeddings, and a BiLSTM-CRF architecture. We test our solution on a dataset of annotated references from the historiography on Venice and, using a linear-chain CRF classifier as a baseline, we show that this deep learning architecture improves by a considerable margin. Furthermore, multi-task learning performs almost on par with a single-task approach. We thus confirm that there are important gains to be had by adopting deep learning for the task of reference mining.
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