Data_Sheet_1_Cross-Species Meta-Analysis of Transcriptomic Data in Combination With Supervised Machine Learning Models Identifies the Common Gene Signature of Lactation Process.CSV

Lactation, a physiologically complex process, takes place in mammary gland after parturition. The expression profile of the effective genes in lactation has not comprehensively been elucidated. Herein, meta-analysis, using publicly available microarray data, was conducted identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between pre- and post-peak milk production. Three microarray datasets of Rat, Bos Taurus, and Tammar wallaby were used. Samples related to pre-peak (n = 85) and post-peak (n = 24) milk production were selected. Meta-analysis revealed 31 DEGs across the studied species. Interestingly, 10 genes, including MRPS18B, SF1, UQCRC1, NUCB1, RNF126, ADSL, TNNC1, FIS1, HES5 and THTPA, were not detected in original studies that highlights meta-analysis power in biosignature discovery. Common target and regulator analysis highlighted the high connectivity of CTNNB1, CDD4 and LPL as gene network hubs. As data originally came from three different species, to check the effects of heterogeneous data sources on DEGs, 10 attribute weighting (machine learning) algorithms were applied. Attribute weighting results showed that the type of organism had no or little effect on the selected gene list. Systems biology analysis suggested that these DEGs affect the milk production by improving the immune system performance and mammary cell growth. This is the first study employing both meta-analysis and machine learning approaches for comparative analysis of gene expression pattern of mammary glands in two important time points of lactation process. The finding may pave the way to use of publically available to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of physiologically complex traits such as lactation in mammals.